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南非国民党政府对南部非洲的地区政策

张立民  
【摘要】:This article is an account of South Africa's regional policy betWeen l948 and 1994. It sets out to describe and exaxnine the main developmenis during this period. Southem Africa is the last region to gain independence. Ulltil the 1960s Southern Africa, except Soath Africa and Naxnibia, was under the control of colonial powers, with imperial economic and political system operated by Britain and Portugal. Before the l 960s, Southern Africa took uP a minor ped in South Africa's concerns of foreign policy, while South Africa cared about the relations with westem couniries the most. In the mid l960s when Britain withdrew from the African continent and some surrounding cotalries obtained independence, Soulh Africa began to tum regional policy as the core of fOreign policy In this region, the colonial story was not over, as the Portuguese struggled to retain control in Mozambique and Angola, the South African remained the control in Namibia and the Anodesian dispute dragged on. Although Pretoria opposed Britain's withdrawal, it had no choices bllt to come to terms with the new situation. A white bloc was fOrmed with SoUth Africa as its most powerful membeT, and, someWhat to Pretoria's smprise, it discovered that in Britain's absence its economic and military strength created opportunities to demonstrate its regional power and to build links with the new black states. Yet Whi1e Pretoria demonstrated its strength it failed to break the hostility of most black states. The best that was achieved was a "live and let live" situation, and even that became more difficult from the mid l970s When Portllguese rule collapsed in Angola and Mozaxnbique. The white bloc disintegrated, the White regime in rmodesia was defeated, and South Africa was left surrounded by black states. To a greater or lesser extent they were a1l dependent on it for vital services, and Pretoria tried to tie them to it through co-operation, bul the black states resented their dependence and they remained bitter opponents of APartheid. They were not always prepared meekly to subordinate their political interests to economic advanage. 2 l From the late l9703 Pretoria overly used its militmp power to try to gain regional dominance. At the same time, the g1obal powers were drawn inio the region, influencing the course of events. Their entry and hostility of neighboring black states continued to limit Pretoria's regional power despite its relatively great strength. For all Pretoria'S efforts the region did not provide a platfOrm to launch its infiuence further into Africa. At the end the l980s, Soulh Africa fell into a severe economic and political crisis. With the push of African democratic tidy, Apartheid was broken gradually. The relations between South Africa and Southern Africa were therefOre improved greatly.
【学位授予单位】:外交学院
【学位级别】:硕士
【学位授予年份】:2000
【分类号】:D747.8

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