China is a large agricultural country with a large population and a major grain consumer. The top priority of agricultural development in our country has been oriented to ensure food safety, and simultaneously the core of food safety has been geared to grain supply. To realize a stable and sufficient supply of food, it is imperative to enhance the comprehensive producing power of the thirteen major grain-producing areas. Jilin province, as an important national commodity grain base, is not only the core strength of grain production, but the typical model of major grain-producing areas. Hence it is of theoretical and practical significance to study agricultural support and protection in Jilin province.
The dissertation explores the necessity and feasibility, and the present situations of agricultural support and protection in Jilin province, under the prerequisite of an objective revelation of the national and international conditions. It constructs the fundamental framework of agricultural support and protection in Jilin province by referring to the beneficial experience of agricultural support and protection in other countries. It develops along the thread of grain safety, and its theme is agricultural support and protection in Jilin province. The methods adopted are an organic combination of theoretical and case analyses, qualitative and quantitative analyses, and deductive and inductive analyses. The main issues included are as follows:
1. Define the concept of agricultural support and protection and explore the issues relevant in terms of theory. The dissertation holds the belief that the support and protection for agriculture, in reality, should be the trinity of supporting and protecting agriculture, farmers, and countryside. It also illustrates, from theoretical perspectives, the necessity of agricultural support and protection, the main body of its realization, the timing, the selection of objects and the foundation of policy making.
2. Explore the issues on the demand and supply of agricultural support and protection in Jilin province at the macro-level. The agricultural support and protection for agricultural development in Jilin province is driven not only by objective demand but by the current ability to supply. The two conditions are indispensable. Macroscopically, the suppliers and demanders are the same—the central government and the local government. Demand at macro-level was found mainly in the following respects: building stable bases of food security strategy to guarantee the safety of national grains; steadily increasing fanners' income to maintain the enthusiasm of production; ensuring reliable sources of raw material for agricultural product-processing industry and speeding up the development of the local economy depending on mainstay industries; reinforcing fundamental conditions of agriculture to steadily improve the comprehensive ability to produce food.
As far as supply capacity is concerned, it is mainly embodied that Jilin province has been generally in the mid-stage of industrialization so it possesses the basic ability to "feed back"; at the national level, China has been in the post-midst age of industrialization with the capability of feeding back; The tendency of policies from the central government will provide sufficient guarantee in macroscopic policies for the support and protection in Jilin province; there is still enough room or "yellow boxes" for the agricultural support and protection to employ according to the rules of WTO and the situations in China. The dissertation establishes the model of demand and supply of agricultural support and protection, and carries out three relative discussions and arguments about the proposition.
3. Comprehensively analyze and evaluate the present situations about agricultural support and protection in Jilin province. By using such indexes as PSE, NRP and AMS, and Green Box Policies, the agricultural support and protection levels in Jilin province are comprehensively analyzed. It is concluded that agricultural support and protection in Jilin province is by and large on the positive level, nevertheless, the overall level is not high and it fluctuates between years; from the aspect of varieties, the support and protection levels differ from agricultural and livestock products. Corn is consistently under positive protection, other products are alternately under positive or negative protection and negative protection is obviously demonstrated on pigs. The supporting levels of Green Box Policies increase, though on low level. Some problems still exist now: low financial input to agriculture; severe shortage of agricultural credit; imperfect guarantee system for the support and protection; inefficient financial fund for agricultural development; unreasonable structure of agricultural support and protection, and so on.
4. Sum up the experience from agricultural support and protection both at home and abroad. It provides some references for agricultural support and protection in Jilin province: adjusting the tariffs and export supporting policies to enhance the boundary protection of agriculture in Jilin province; deepening the reform of supporting policies of prices for farm products to protect main farm products; attaching importance to agricultural multifunction to maintain the sustainable development; increasing farmer's revenue by implementing direct subsides and agricultural insurance; pushing forward the building of a new socialist countryside by taking some measures.
5. Establish basic framework for agricultural support and protection. The framework consists of three parts: goals, principle, key points and important measures for agricultural support and protection. The dissertation puts forward a new goal system which is made up of revenue goal, goal of supply and demand, goal of ecology, goal of interest by the analysis of the new problems facing the current situations of agricultural development and the changes in the main body of farm production in thoughts, concept and qualities. The specific principles are as follows: the principle of enlightening main points and appropriately supporting and protecting; the principle of standing to market principle and the principle of adhering to Agricultural Treaty in WTO; the principle of mutual support and protection for the main grain-producing areas under the superiority of the central government and the local government; the principle of industrial providence for agricultural support and protection to develop modern agricultural industrial system. The major keys to support and protection include: grain production especially corns; agricultural resources and environment; agricultural construction in basic facilities. The main measures taken for the support and protection in Jilin province should be as follows: building multiple agricultural financial investment system; reinforcing basic conditions of agricultural development; enhancing the building of new-brand scientific and technological service system; developing farm insurance in policies; leveling up the industrialization, marketing and farmers' organization in agricultural development; speeding up the process of agricultural standardization; exploiting the human resources in the countryside and improving the quality and strengthening the construction of agricultural law systems and others.
Possible breakthroughs of the dissertation are displayed as follows:
1. Analyze the general trend of grain consumption structures in the last ten years in China and show characteristics of structural changes of grain consumption; make scientific predictions about its structure of grain demand and supply and total amount; display the possible contradictable movement and challenges facing national food security in the supply and demand of food; analyze the decisive influence and role of main food-producing areas for national food security and point out the strategic significance of protecting the food-producing areas.
2. Establish the modes of supply and demand in agricultural support and protection under the framework that shows the same subject of suppliers and demanders on the macroscopic level in Jilin province; argue about the relationships between the level of supply and demand, their structures and the possibilities of macro-demand realization; analyze the relationships between them in different stages of agricultural development. The conclusion is of great significance in theory and practice during the course of performing the support and protection.
3. Point out the right orientation of long-term agricultural support and protection: strengthening financial support of agriculture, improving credit environments and lessening farmers' burden. The goal is accomplished by considering such indexes as Farmers' Subsidies Equality, Nominal Protection Ratio and Comprehensive Support Degree, by constructing and analyzing Amount of PSE Analysis Model, and on the basis of the comprehensive evaluation of the agricultural support and protection in Jilin province,
4. Analyze the dynamic effect of the four factors of supply, revenue, ecology and interest at the new stage of agricultural development on national food safety; illustrate the necessity, the realization and urgency of strategic changes in agricultural support and protection and explain the timing and rationality of the new targets for agricultural support and protection in Jilin province.