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Chinese Strategic Culture: A Wei Qi Analysis

JENNY,Nicolas  
【摘要】:If the 21st Century is set to be the 'Asian Century', understanding China's rise is essential to mapping out what will replace the US' unipolar moment in international relations. Although several scholars and policy makers have attempted to answer this question, most have done so from a biased point of view which fails to capture the pervasive influence of China's historical norms on its strategic culture. As such, this thesis uses the ancient game of Wei Qi to analyse China's foreign policy practices by aiming to understand how China's gaming strategies influence its foreign policy.The use of Wei Qi as an independent variable is tested by analysing the foreign policy practices of three distinct phases of recent Chinese history including:the Qing Dynasty; Mao's reign; and the present. As such, this thesis gives a wide overview of a range of case studies including the Opium Wars, Korean War, Sino-US rapprochement, China's maritime strategy, UN peacekeeping operations and influence on developing countries, PLA reforms and the use of cyber warfare. The last chapter brings the various case studies and Wei Qi strategy together by creating a framework for China's future foreign policy moves using three key observations:as China has gained power, it has sought to extend its foreign policy reach to more distant areas of the world; China reacts 'intensely' to issues it considers key to its national security-even if the issues are essentially contested in nature; and through its international exposure, China has become both a norm maker and a norm taker.This thesis finds that China's foreign policy, much like Wei Qi, is based on an anti-encirclement strategy. As such, it is argued that China's foreign policy reactions are essentially based on other moves by foreign powers in the region. This does not predispose China to a fixed aggressive or passive stance in its foreign policy. Rather, the measures China adopts are dependent on the situational context it faces implying a highly pragmatic foreign policy orientation.


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