【摘要】：' Through his translating practice of the Bible, Eugene. A.
Nida has proposed his translating theory--" functional
equivalence". It states that the fOrm must be changed to preserve
the content of the message, and the new focus of translating has
shifted from the fOrm of the message to the response of the target
language readers. Therefore, It has introduced a new principle of
judging a translation: dynamic equivalence (or functional
equivalence), which is to be defined in terms of the degree to
which the receptor language readers respond to the message in
substantially the same manner as the receptors in the source
language. On the basis of the theory, this paper analyzes the two
English Versions of the Chinese "Bible"--Analects Of Confucius
( % ). The analysis not only shows the significance of the
theory of functional equivalence in translating classica1 Chinese
works, but makes use of the findings of the Chinese-English
contrastive studies as well as some practical trans1ation skills.
This paper consists of the following three chapters.
Chapter One A Review of Translation Theories
Chapter one introduces the various translation theories and
thoughts in China and in the West from different points of view:
the definition of translation, the standards for judging a
translation, the basic process in translating, requisites fOr
translators, etc. In particular, the approach of functional
equivalence is discussed in detail because this comprehensive
approach combines the study of words, sentences and contexts
in a cross-cultural communication environment, and emphasizes
the reproduction of the message and the target readers' response
rather than the form of the utterance.
' Chapter Two An Introduction to
Anulects of ConftLcius
In additiori to introducing the background and the content of
Analects Of Confucius, this chapter deals mainly with its literary
achievements and linguistic characteristics. The special features
of the book such as the style of conversations, the wide use of
- rhetorical devices, and the classical Chinese culture, etc. entail
enormous difficulties in its translation.
Chapter Three Translatiou Techniques
A. The Lexical Level
l. The meanings of words are the basic units of language that
convey infOrmation, so the translation of words requires accuracy
and c1arity. But in ancient Chinese prose, one word usual1y has
several meanings which vary with different contexts. So
identifying the exact word meanings is an indispensable step in
tran s lating.
2. Correspondence is a common method for transferring
words. But we should learn to discriminate between reaI
corre spondence and pseudo-correspondence. And the basis for
the discrimination is "functional equivalence".
3. C1ssical Chinese tends to be concise but may sound rather
insipid, and emotions are usua1ly expressed only in a mild way.
So the translator has to add some words to fully convey the
implied emotions so that the English readers can ful1y
understand the translation just as the original readers
understand the original text.
4. Repetition is very common in Chinese to emphasize some
information or to form parallelism. To conform to the English
language habit, the translator often has to replace the repetitive
parts with different words or phrases which express the same
5. There is a tendency of using nouns and prepositions in
English, while verbs play a predominant role in Chinese. So it is
necessary to transfer some Chinese verbs into English noun
phrases or prepositional phrases so that the translation sounds
natural to the target language readers.
B. The Syntactical Level -
1. Zero-subject sentences f The initial position of a Chinese
sentence is usually occupied by the topic, which may not have a
c1ose relation to the predicate. So there exist a large number of
zero-subject sentences in Chinese. They need to be treated in
translation by such methods as adding sub