【摘要】：During its transition period, the progress of Russian domestic politics correlates much with the U.S. - Russian relations' evolvement. The correlation is mainly shown as, the development of Russian domestic politics not only influence its diplomatic strategy positioning and policy toward U.S., but also is the starting point and important ground for the United States to make its policy toward Russia.
The transition of Russian domestic politics is on the whole the process of replacing the traditional Soviet Union Communism mode with western Capitalism mode. Since Gorbachev started the reforming process for Soviet Union in mid 80's, Russia has almost realized the transition from Communism to Capitalism after years of gradual transforming from late 80's to the 90's. Parliament democracy, balance of the executive, legislative and judicial powers, multi-party politics, free voting and multiple ideas have been rooted in Russian political life. The regime in place in Russia today is radically different from the one-party autocracy that ruled the Soviet Union for seven decades. Corresponding to the changes taken place in Russian political progress, the U.S. - Russian relations also essentially changed from the former U.S. -Soviet Union relations during Cold War. Russia has gradually given up its diplomatic strategy and policy toward the United States, which were once full of ideological confrontation. What's mor
e, the interior change in Russia also agreed with the U.S.' ultimate strategic goal toward Russia. Therefore, along with the Russian political transition from traditional mode to Capitalism "Democratic Mode", the U.S. - Russian relations ended the history of hostility and confrontation. The bilateral relations from then on have made
unprecedented progress in each area, and on the whole, maintained the trend of dialog and cooperation.
The Russian social transition is a process full of conflicts and clashes. As the Russian transition needs to replace one social system with another one, this tremendous change inevitably will cause complex contradictions, which will consequently bring great shocks to different social societies. The severe conflicts among political forces representing different social societies exist along the whole transition era. Serious economic and social crisis have resulted in obvious social and racial splits. All political forces representing different social benefits raised their reigning creed and policies. The Parliament Election, Presidential Voting, as well as domestic and foreign policies were all surrounded with severe conflicts. Although the opponent force represented by Communist Party did not shake the reigning status of the present regime, nor was the whole trend of Russian political transition turned, the conflicts among different political forces have nevertheless influenced the transition process and direction to some extent. The different political forces representing corresponding social levels hold different, or worse, tit for tat opinions toward the future of Russian development, as well as toward the foreign strategy and policy to the United States. Thus, when the westernizing reforming in Russia entered the tight corner, the Russian administration's diplomatic strategy and policy toward the United States became the blaming targets of some parties, which worsened the Russian domestic regime crisis, and consequently pushed the reigning hand make large adjustments on the policy toward the United States. At the same time, the complex situation in Russian political structure would push the United States make corresponding adjustments to its policy toward Russia. On one hand, the United States are always trying to maintain the "Democratization" process in Russia; while on the other hand, the United States are strengthening on policy of "Weakening" Russia, for fear of the resurgence of traditional regime. Therefore, the U.S. -Russian relations have entered a period of turbulence since mid 90's. The United States and Russia have had conflicts and divergences over a series of