收藏本站
收藏 | 手机打开
二维码
手机客户端打开本文

Farmers' Perceptions of Climate Change and Their Adaptation Strategies:a Case Study in China

Kibue Grace Wanjiru  
【摘要】:The changing climate is a global phenomenon and a challenge for both current and future generations,which scientists around the world overwhelmingly attribute to human activities that release greenhouse gases into the atmosphere.Climate-related hazards will affect people's lives directly through impacts on livelihoods,reductions in crop yields,or destruction of homes and indirectly through,for example,increased food prices and food insecurity.Impacts of climate change are predicted to be particularly severe in developing countries,especially in Africa and Asia,where communities are highly dependent on the direct use of local natural resources.Chinese agriculture has frequently suffered from climatic variations and changes through droughts,floods and other climate related hazards such as landslides and typhoons.The consequences have been devastating,both economically and socially.Thus,climate variability is of great importance in China because;firstly,more than half of the Chinese populace live in the rural areas and depend on agriculture for their livelihood,a sector predicted to experience severe impacts of climate change.Secondly,23%of Chinese agricultural land is under rice production,a staple food of about 50%of the world's population.Disturbingly,studies of farmers' knowledge about climate variability and adaptation under uncertainty remain limited as majority address impacts and predict future climate scenarios and others are centered on government' efforts to mitigate climate change.A study was conducted in three major agricultural regions of China;Henan,Anhui and Jiangsu to examine what the farming communities know about climate change and how they reduce climate change vulnerabilities.These regions form the backbone of the livelihoods of the rural population with majority of the farmers owning small parcels of land owing to continued subdivisions.The farmers' practice multiple cropping;done mainly through changing single harvest rice/wheat to double harvest rice/wheat,winter crops and various kinds of relay cropping.Horticultural crops are also grown.This study was conducted using semi-structured questionnaires containing short statements put on a five point Likert scale and closed and open-ended questions.The questionnaire was pre-tested in a different site to facilitate restructuring of questions before the actual survey.Interviewees were selected through random sampling.Before the commencement of interviews,respondents were explained the purpose of study and asked if they were willing to participate in the research.After giving consent,all interviews and discussions were recorded by five enumerators.In addition,focused group discussions were conducted to give more insight to issues that were not well captured in the questionnaires.For this,a checklist was used to moderate the discussions.The data were coded and edited to remove missing values and outliers and then analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Science(SPSS)version 16.0.Data were tested for their reliability(using a 'reliability analysis';Alpha = 0.77).Descriptive analysis was used to summarize data.T-tests,correlations and chi square test were used for statistical analysis.The results presented a clear scenario of land fragmentation;the vast majority of farmers owned less than 11 Chinese Mu(0.7 hectares).Farmers' have denounced some traditional agricultural practices such a returning crop straws to the soil as they considered it labor intensive and economically unsustainable.Furthermore,nearly all farmers' relied on intensive use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides to increase yield at the detriment of environment.The farmers are generally aware of direct and observable causes of climate change and the main impacts of climate change on agriculture.They associate climate change with;decrease and variability in rainfall,increase in temperatures,dwindling and deteriorating water resources and disappearance and emergence of new plant species over the past 20 years.However,the farmers lack clear understanding of the interconnections between the natural environment and farm management activities that result in climate change.Results showed that knowledge and attitudes towards climate change are influenced by personal and social characteristics,notably gender,age and education.The farmers who are older and more educated,show better understanding of climate change and recognize that climate change mitigation requires a participatory approach.However,a worrisome tendency by the farmers' to distance themselves from taking responsibility to mitigate climate change impacts and belief that government policies' capacity to address climate change is not adequate was also established.As regards gender,women are more perceptive of climate change than men.Farmers mainly depend on personal experience,fellow farmers and public media for information.This observation reveals an information gap between the sources and the farmers,who are the recipients.Consequently,farmers lack detailed awareness of the linkages between agriculture and climate change and are not able to adopt innovations and actions that can reduce social vulnerability and mitigate climate change.For instance,though biochar innovation is an option to mitigate climate change while conferring other environmental benefits,results revealed that most of the farmers were not aware of the innovation.However,the biochar adopters reported that the innovation was timely because it addresses crop straw management problem and confers other benefits.The study established that the most common adaptation practices are changing the planting dates,crop varieties,crop varieties and improved water harvesting and storage.The most important factors in adapting to climate change were:household head's education;contact with extension services;change of attitudes in gathering information and change of climate change perceptions.Results showed that climate change adaptation is hampered by lack of reliable and timely information,credit and incentives.Consistent and reliable information helps to empower farmers to be conscious that agriculture contributes to climate change and also has potential to mitigate climate change.Furthermore,the farmers are likely to support policies that are aimed at mitigating climate change.The vast majorities were yet to make adjustments in their farming practices as a result of numerous socioeconomic and socio-cultural challenges.Lack of credit may impede adaptation because it may require capital especially for acquiring new innovations and establishment of infrastructure like irrigation.Social cultural factors may also hinder adaptation because farmers are cautious of adjusting their agricultural practice for fear of being seen to be non compliant with the cultural norms.These results show that farmers are more likely to adapt to climate variability if contact with extension services and authoritative sources of information are improved.These results strongly suggest need for policy makers to understand what farmers perceive about climate change in order to formulate policies that foster adaptation.In addition,farmers' should be given incentives and financial assistance for adaptation.Finally,more studies on the human factors(psychological,behavioral and socio-cultural)influencing climate variability adaptations should be done to ensure effective climate variability and change policies.


知网文化
【相似文献】
中国期刊全文数据库 前20条
1 ;Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation in Agriculture[J];Journal of Northeast Agricultural University(English Edition);2009年04期
2 Tek B Sapkota;M L Jat;Jeetendra P Aryal;R K Jat;Arun Khatri-Chhetri;;Climate change adaptation, greenhouse gas mitigation and economic profitability of conservation agriculture: Some examples from cereal systems of Indo-Gangetic Plains[J];Journal of Integrative Agriculture;2015年08期
3 HUANG Ji-kun;WANG Yang-jie;;Financing Sustainable Agriculture Under Climate Change[J];Journal of Integrative Agriculture;2014年04期
4 Fengkui Qian;Wentao Wang;Yanhua Liu;;Research into adaptive countermeasures to addressing the effects of climate change on agriculture[J];Chinese Journal of Population,Resources and Environment;2014年04期
5 HUANG Ji- kun;;Climate Change and Agriculture: Impact and Adaptation[J];Journal of Integrative Agriculture;2014年04期
6 Zixiang ZHOU;Yufeng ZOU;;Carbon payments in the Guanzhong–Tianshui region to control land degradation[J];Frontiers of Agricultural Science and Engineering;2017年02期
7 Xinmin ZHANG;Chunhong QIN;;Experience and Ways of Low-carbon Agriculture Development[J];Asian Agricultural Research;2013年10期
8 Zhang Huaguo;;Problems in the Development of Plateau Modern Agriculture in Tibet "One River and Two Streams" Agroecological Basin and Countermeasures[J];Meteorological and Environmental Research;2017年02期
9 ;MODERN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY AND INDUSTRIAL AGRICULTURE[J];Bulletin of the Chinese Academy of Sciences;1997年04期
10 TAO Ai-xiang;;The Relationship between Low-carbon Agriculture and Agricultural Science and Technology Based on Gray Relational Theory[J];Asian Agricultural Research;2012年09期
11 ;Challenges and Opportunities in Developing Beijing Modern Urban Agriculture[J];Asian Agricultural Research;2012年02期
12 Li YAO;;Japan's Modern Agriculture and Its Effects on Agricultural Development of Anhui Province[J];Asian Agricultural Research;2017年05期
13 Xiaolan YUN;;Paths for Increasing Effective Input to Urban Agriculture[J];Asian Agricultural Research;2017年03期
14 Chengkui QIANG;Yuehua QIN;Shengyong WANG;Baoya ZHOU;Wujian FENG;Songsong WANG;;Necessity and Feasibility of Developing Low Carbon Agriculture in Xuzhou City[J];Asian Agricultural Research;2013年06期
15 Chen Yao;;Approaches to Promote China’s Low Carbon Agricultural Development[J];Journal of Northeast Agricultural University(English Edition);2012年04期
16 Vahid Karimi;Ezatollah Karami;Marzieh Keshavarz;;Climate change and agriculture:Impacts and adaptive responses in Iran[J];Journal of Integrative Agriculture;2018年01期
17 Chengjun ZHANG;;How to Develop Low-carbon Agriculture in China?[J];Asian Agricultural Research;2015年04期
18 Wenjuan ZHAO;Shilong YANG;Xiao WANG;;Livelihood Capital and Livelihood Diversification for Different Farmers in Yuanjiang Dry-Hot River Valley[J];Asian Agricultural Research;2016年03期
19 ;Essential Factors and Sustainable Development of Green Agriculture[J];Journal of Northeast Agricultural University(English Edition);2009年02期
20 Min ZHANG;Fengjun LU;Runlian MIAO;Yan JIN;;System Variable Analysis on Development Stages of Urban Agriculture in Large Cities[J];Asian Agricultural Research;2014年11期
中国重要会议论文全文数据库 前10条
1 А.Narynbayeva;S.Kaidarova;;PRIORITY DIRECTIONS OF INVESTMENT ACTIVITY OF KAZAKHSTAN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION[A];2012 North-East Asia Academic Forum[C];2012年
2 Abdulkareem Raheem;Jun Zhang;Hojatollah Latifmanesh;Xin Zhang;Yu Jiang;Weijian Zhang;;Simultaneously addressing climate change and greenhouse emission for rice sustainability in China: A climate-smart perspective[A];中国农学会耕作制度分会2018年度学术年会论文摘要集[C];2018年
3 ;A Study on Architecture and Key Techniques of Agricultural Resource Planning[A];2009中国控制与决策会议论文集(3)[C];2009年
4 ;Effects of Global Warming on the Production Patterns of Agriculture and Animal Husbandry in Qinghai[A];Formation and Evolution, Environmental Changes and Sustainable Development on the Tibetan Plateau[C];1998年
5 ;The Grey Relational Analysis of Agricultural Structure in Huairou County[A];第四届中国青年运筹与管理学者大会论文集[C];2001年
6 Abdulkareem Raheem;Yu Jiang;Weijian Zhang;;A climate-smart perspective for rice sustainability in China[A];2018中国作物学会学术年会论文摘要集[C];2018年
7 ;Based on the Development of Lang fang city industrial cluster agricultural industrialization research[A];Proceedings of the Sixth Forum of Collaborative Development among Bohai-Rim,Circum-Capital and Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei[C];2012年
8 GUO Fang-fang;WU Bo-ming;;The effects of rural land circulation on plant diseases[A];中国植物病理学会2015年学术年会论文集[C];2015年
9 ;The Ideas and Countermeasures about Speeding up the Development of Specialized Farmers Cooperatives[A];Proceedings of Extended Research of Cluster Development Among Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei and Urban Economic Orientation of Langfang[C];2011年
10 Zhiqiang Feng;;ZhongYuan economic zone grain security and the adjustment of agriculture structure research[A];2013年教育技术与管理科学国际会议论文集[C];2013年
中国博士学位论文全文数据库 前10条
1 Kibue Grace Wanjiru;[D];南京农业大学;2014年
2 塔锐克(TARIQ SHAH);[D];华中农业大学;2016年
3 贺丽洁;都市农业与中国小城镇规划研究[D];天津大学;2014年
4 奥马;农民公司与农业现代化[D];华中科技大学;2004年
5 Germaine Emefa Wasseh GBETE;影响多哥农业生产的因素分析[D];中国农业科学院;2016年
6 游京华;影响泰国农产品国际贸易竞争力的因素分析[D];对外经济贸易大学;2017年
7 Rajesh Sikder(芮捷思);孟加拉农业发展的扶贫战略研究[D];中国农业大学;2014年
8 YASEEN MUHAMMAD;巴基斯坦和中国之间的农业推广体系的比较研究[D];中国农业科学院;2016年
9 于国栋;[D];广东外语外贸大学;2001年
10 Zhang Xinhong;[D];广东外语外贸大学;2000年
中国硕士学位论文全文数据库 前10条
1 郭莉;《江苏省实施<中华人民共和国农业技术推广法>办法》英译项目报告[D];南京师范大学;2018年
2 Sydyk Zakir;[D];华东师范大学;2018年
3 Nurdana Zhaishylyk;[D];南京理工大学;2018年
4 UWAMAHORO ILLUMINEE;[D];山东大学;2018年
5 LOUFOUMA EUVENE NUPTIA PATERNE;[D];吉林农业大学;2017年
6 穆罕默德 艾哈默德(Muhammad AHMAD);尼日利亚卡齐纳州农业银行信贷可获得性影响因素分析[D];沈阳农业大学;2017年
7 陈丹;农业典籍英译策略探讨[D];西北农林科技大学;2017年
8 MWENSHA MVANA YVETTE;[D];浙江理工大学;2018年
9 张乃丹;[D];西安外国语大学;2011年
10 Minacapilli Giuseppe;[D];华东师范大学;2018年
中国重要报纸全文数据库 前1条
1 中国机械工业联合会副会长 中国农业机械工业协会理事长 高元恩 Vice Chairman of China Machinery Industry Federation Chairman of China Association of Agricultural Machinery Manufacturers (CAAMM) Mr. Gao Yuanen;携手中外同行 共创行业辉煌 Create Brilliance With World In Agricultural Machinery[N];中国农机化导报;2006年
中国知网广告投放
 快捷付款方式  订购知网充值卡  订购热线  帮助中心
  • 400-819-9993
  • 010-62982499
  • 010-62783978