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Security Cooperation in the Andean Sub-region

DIANA KAROLINA BENALCAZAR GALLARDO  
【摘要】:Global security and traditional threats have been amply studied diminishing the relevance of the regional level and the emergence of non-traditional security threats.This research analyzes the impact of security cooperation on the Andean sub-region.The Andean states are domestically vulnerable due to aspects such as political and economic instability,lack of transparency,impunity and corruption.Their situation is aggravated by the impact of external non-traditional security threats.Security cooperation is evidenced in the sub-region since 1989.It is difficult to refer to security without mentioning the United States for its economic and military cooperation.The last decade since 2006 evidenced multiple changes.The sub-regional framework shows lack of integration and polarity,aspects that have reshaped security cooperation priorities and partners.The changes are related with both an ideological transition from the Andean states and an agenda change from cooperation partners.As a result,indexes of organized crime,drug and human trafficking,insurgent groups and its derived problems have increased.This work considers an analysis which goes from the micro to the macro level,and has the security constellation as its basis.Hence,it focuses on how the different security cooperation policies and strategies held in different levels have impacted the security scenario in the Andean sub-region.The four dimensions are:First,the domestic level considering the vulnerabilities generated there and the enforced policies and strategies;second,the state-state relationship emphasizing the sub-region itself;third,the role of sub-regional,regional and hemispherical organizations;finally,the role of a regional power-Brazil,and a global power-United States on shaping security cooperation.Under this context this qualitative and multi-case study aims to explore the research question:how security cooperation can contribute to change the current security context in the Andean sub-region?The research design considers a theoretical analysis based on the Regional Security Complex Theory(RSCT),presenting the importance of broadening the elements included when referring to regional security.This study argues the consideration of the Andean subcomplex and highlights the relevance of geographical proximity.Lastly,the theoretical framework alludes to different theoretical approaches focusing on neo-realism to contextualize security but debating its state centric vision,suggesting a broader scope.It also analyzes functionalism referring to cooperation and regional integration for strengthening security cooperation and improving the current context.Finally,the empirical evaluation done in the Andean sub-region considers security cooperation as an important path to change the current security situation.It suggests that combined strategies contribute to improve the domestic scenario of each one of the Andean states,and to consolidate regional integration for been the only mechanism to pursue a regional agenda for security cooperation and to improve sub-regional relations,stability and development.


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