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A Review for Pyrrole Syntheses

Kingsadingthongkham Vongdeth  
【摘要】:In this paper, the present review aim at pyrrole syntheses from2008to the end of2012. The most interesting concepts in modern synthetic chemistry, they provide an attractive entry into pyrrole. Pyrrole and pyrrole derivatives are very important heterocycles from many points of view including medicinal and pharmaceutical chemistry and materials science. Specifically, bipyrroles are a valuable precursor for the synthesis of the various marine natural products. Such as:anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-tumor, anti-fungal, and immune suppressant activities. Highly functionalized pyrroles are subunits of considerable importance in heme, chlorophyll, bile pigments, vitamin B12, and marine source-derived pyrrole allkaroids and various cytochrome enzymes. A large number of general methods have been developed for the synthesis of pyrroles, including classical are the well known Knorr pyrrole synthesis, the Hantzsch pyrrole synthesis, and the Paal-Knorr pyrrole synthesis,1,3-dipolar cycloaddition and etc. These methodologies typically require the preparation of the precursors prior to cyclization, which can complicate both the synthesis and the structural modification of the substituted pyrroles. However, upon these well-established procedures, some drawbacks still exists, for instance, high temperatures, long reaction times, low yields and complicated workup procedures. In addition, the development of new reactions or improved conditions for the classical ones, with growing interest in better methodologies for the preparation of pyrroles, it is quite necessary to explore facile, green and practical methods.


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