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Spatial Regulation Motilities in the Social Bacterium Myxococcus Xanthus

【摘要】:All organisms, animals, plants and microbes, are composed of polarized cells, displaying asymmetric positioning of sub-cellular organelles or structures. Polarity control has been studied in eukaryotes for a long time, and has been shown to be involved in many physiological processes, such as embryogenesis, cancer metastasis and neuron degenerative diseases. In prokaryotes, polarity studies only emerged recently with the development of sensitive fluorescent microscopy. These studies revealed that prokaryotic cells are in fact highly organized and a growing body of literature has shown that bacterial cells also use lipid rafts, membrane curvature, the cell wall and a complex cytoskeleton to direct the specific positioning of subcellular structures. Small GTPases of the Ras superfamily are widespread polarization regulatory elements in eukaryotes. Despite the long known existence of such small GTPases in prokaryotic genomes, their function has never been studied. During this thesis work, we found, for the first time, that a small GTPase, MgIA and its cognate GTPase Activating Protein (GAP) MgIB, direct a dynamic anterior-posterior axis to direct motility of the rod-shaped deltaproteobacterium Myxococcus xanthus. In this process, MgIA accumulates in its GTP-bound state at the leading cell pole, activating the motility machineries. This localization pattern is maintained by MgIB, which localizes at the opposite pole, blocking MgIA accumulation at this pole through its GAP activity. Remarkably, both proteins switch their localization synchronously, which correlates with a dramatic change in the direction of cell movement (reversal). This switch is regulated by a chemosensory-like system, Frz. In a second part of this work, we identified a response regulator protein, RomR which is essential for the polar clustering of MgIA. Intricate localization interdependences between Romr, MgIA and MgIB indicate that these proteins might constitute a dynamic three-protein polarity complex that receives Frz-signaling to switch the polarity axis. In conclusion, the results from this thesis work suggest that M. xanthus integrated a eukaryotic-like polarity module (MgIAB) into a prokaryotic-specific (Frz) signaling network to regulate its motility. Such regulation is distinct form small G-protein regulations, which are generally coupled to G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) in eukaryotes. Finally, this work paves the way to understand how single cell motility regulations are integrated to generate ordered multicellular behaviors giving rise to primitive developmental structures, for example fruiting body morphogenesis. On the other hand, this work also provides an example to analyze the evolutionary steps giving rise to signaling networks.

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