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先秦汉语量范畴研究

黄芳  
【摘要】: The dissertation adopted an outward research approach which is from meanings to the grammatical forms to analize the system of the quantity categories in per-Qin Chinese. It established the grammatical forms system of the quantity categories in the per-Qin chinese. On this basis it has expanded diachronic comparative study Which is from a development point of view to study the common and personality characteristics of the forms of quantity in ancient Chinese and modern Chinese. The paper revealed the motivation and mechanisms which is the emergence and development of Chinese classifiers. And placed the forms of quantity in the per-Qin Chinese at the broad background of human language. we tried to observe the common and personality characteristics of the forms of quantity between per-Qin Chinese and other languages from a typological point of view. The full-text was about twenty hundred thousand words. In addition to the introduction and concluding part, the dissertation included 9 parts.Chapter 2 to Chapter 8 focused on the system of quantity categories of per-Qin Chinese.It described the basic aspects of the quantity categories of Per-Qin Chinese and made in-depth analysis and interpretation to some important phenomenon. Chapter 2 comprehensively described the numerals and quantifiers system in the pre-Qin Chinese. We pointed out that numerals and quantifiers are an important means to express quantity in the pre-Qin Chinese.Chapter 3 focused on the quantifiers in the pre-Qin Chinese.According to the article, quantifiers coulded endow their relates with quantity meanings.quantifiers system that played limitness role was an important component of quantity categories system in the pre-Qin Chinese.Chapter 4 to Chapter 7 in-depth and detailed descripted and discussed the main sub-quantity categories,such as:material quantity;action quantity;time quantity;space quantity. In the material quantity part,we proposed the concept of quantum. From the perspective of the being-quantum,we analyzed the functions of quantity of nouns in the pre-Qin Chinese. We pointed out that strong physical space-specific semantic features endowed the nouns with the the functions of being-quantum and enabled themselves to be quantum unit to measure things in the pre-Qin Chinese. The word order of quantity forms in Chinese didn't occur fundamentally change." numeral-quantifier-nouns" word order was the results of the means of being-quantum from implicitness to explicitness. In the part of action quantity,we talked about the frequency quantity of action that is the repeated times of movements. The time quantity part descripted the means to express time points and time quantum detailedly. We protested that the forms of time quantity can express the material quantity and the frequency quantity of movements. In the space quantity part, we pointed out that the measurement quantifiers are important means to express space quantity and indication words can also display space quantity.Distance is an external space quantity which reflects the spatial relationships between things. The relationship space quantity needed indication words to clarify the measurement of space quantity.According to the article, measurement quantifiers in the pre-Qin Chinese are the units to standard measure persons or things and their basic function are being-quantum.they were explicit quantum unit which should compulsory appear in the forms of quantity. Chapter 8 discussed fuzzy quantity which is the sub-quantity categories from the perspective of the accuracy of the measurement. There were abundant means to express fuzzy quantity in the pre-Qin Chinese. In pre-Qin Period the "zhong (众) "in "X zhong (众) " was a kind of quasi-person plural marker.Chapter 9 and 10 putted the the pre-Qin Chinese into a large field of vision of human language and used synchronic and diachronic methods to multi-angle study the incentives and mechanisms of production and development of classifiers in Chinese,It discussed the function of quantity of the plural marker in quantifier language. According to the article, the explicitness of being-quantum was the driving forceis of production and development of classifiers in Chinese.the nature function of classifiers and plural markers was being-quantum. The plural markers in quantifier language was a form to express plural and did not have being-quantum function. The research of the dissertation clearly reflected the role and status of quantifiers in the quantity system in the pre-Qin Chinese and revealed the motives and mechanisms to generate and enrich the development of Chinese classifiers. The establishment of quantity system in the pre-Qin Chinese not only laid the foundation for fully diachronic studying of the evolutionin of quantity categories in Chinese,but also provided the references of comparative studying with other languages in typology vision.


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