【摘要】：Wudang martial arts as one of the Chinese martial arts, who shares the honor with Shaolin martial arts, especially as traditional "manly arts" achieve "outside" to" inside" transition exerts an enormous influence on the traditional martial arts. Therefore, the Wudang martial arts reflect and embody the traditional Chinese cultural development of the dialectical relationship between "unity" and "diversity" more obviously and fully. On the basis of excavation and consolidation to the current Wudang martial arts, this paper applies the logical deduction of literature, comparative study, structural analysis and the method of the unity of logic and history to carry out the Wudang martial arts and cultural studies, investigates cultural and ecological Wudang martial arts systematically, outlines the formation and development path of Wudang martial arts culture, combs the main content of Wudang martial arts culture, extract the basic spirit of Wudang martial arts culture, and overviews the Wudang martial arts cultural characteristics and their implications, which is not only help us understanding and protecting this cultural heritage deeply, but also help us to inherit and carry forward traditional Chinese martial arts culture in a better way.
Firstly, the cultural ecology of Wudang martial arts includes four areas:geographic background, cultural background, social background and martial arts background of attack. From the geographical background point of view, Wudang Mountain's location, natural environment is superior, this laid the foundation for the rise of the future of Wudang Taoism, Wudang Taoist elixir Wudang Mountain and Wudang martial arts culture; from the cultural background and social contexts point of view, Wudang Mountain Region and fairy side surgery, and health care operation refining the prevalence and development of Wudang Taoism, the Wudang Taoism the formation of inner alchemy Regime prepared the conditions; from the background side of attack, the survival of primitive tribes Wudang Mountain area Wudang martial arts competition inspired the budding martial, Wudang Mountain and the surrounding areas of the ancient military war shaping the Wudang martial arts fighting techniques, Wudang Taoist Mountain Hermitage various breeds health anchorite Wudang martial arts exercises and routine techniques.
Secondly, the formation of Wudang martial arts culture must be the criterion for the formation and development of Wudang martial arts, and the formation of Wudang martial arts and benefit from the Taoist elixir combination of Shaolin martial arts, therefore, the formation and development of Wudang martial arts culture can not be limited in the Wudang Mountain area. From the point of cultural origin, Taoism, "Imitation of Nature," "pure inaction" thinking, all kinds of health and thinking of alchemy pre-Qin dynasty, "clear your heart", "enlightenment Buddha" thinking from Buddhism, and the "actual situation", "Yin and Yang" changes ideology from the ancient art of war all had a profound cultural impact on the formation of Wudang Martial Arts; from the historical conditions of the Han dynasty Buddhist and Taoist battle elixir Dan Road, theory and the maturity of Confucianism in Yuan and Ming dynasty Buddhism and Taoism, "Three Religions" and the formation of Wudang Taoism, Yuan and Ming Dynasties of military martial arts from the gloom and doom and highlights the limitations of the development of Shaolin martial arts, all are a prerequisite for the formation of Wudang martial arts. On this basis, the formation and development of Wudang martial arts trajectory is that the late Tang and Five Dynasties Dongbin Lv Wudang Taoist hermit, Chen Tuan's "flying sword" signs sprouting Wudang Martial Arts, Yuan and Ming Zhang Sanfeng created Wudang Internal Martial Arts is the Wudang martial arts formation, and early Qing Taijiquan Theory marks the maturity of Wudang martial arts.
Thirdly, the basic spirit and the main content of Wudang martial arts culture. According to the current cultural structure of the martial arts of Wushu theory of three-level classification, we believe that the main content of Wudang martial arts culture, including:the transmission of Wudang martial arts genre, Wudang martial arts and boxing equipment, martial arts Wudang martial power law theory of the three components. And hidden among the above-mentioned main activities and is leading the creation of the basic spirit of Wudang martial arts culture, from the martial art of attack level, the basic spirit is "natural boxing from boxing enlightenment"; from martial arts training routine aspects of power law point of view, its basic spirit is "from the inside out, by the operation humanely"; way from the perspective of Wushu, its basic spirit is to "worship ancestral respect for teachers, were asked through."
Fourthly, the evolution, characteristics and effects of Wudang martial arts culture. Since the Late Qing Dynasty, Wudang martial arts culture has experienced two major cultural baptisms, in the process of Wudang Martial Arts also began the process of its evolution, which gradually by the "hidden" state of evolution as the "dominant" state of existence. Generated from the development of Wudang martial arts and cultural history, cultural integration of its powerful force, vitality combined cohesion, which is its ability to survive has been the key to reproduction; it also on the Late Qing Dynasty to the development of the traditional martial arts to produce a far-reaching historical impact on the development of contemporary Wudang significant cultural impact, and the martial arts novels of Jin Yong, who the media had a majority of the people on the contemporary social impact.